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Entry version 37 (16 Oct 2019)
Sequence version 1 (16 Apr 2014)
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Protein

Alanine racemase

Gene

alr

Organism
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (strain ATCC 25618 / H37Rv)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Catalyzes the interconversion of L-alanine and D-alanine. D-alanine plays a key role in peptidoglycan cross-linking.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

pyridoxal 5'-phosphateUniRule annotation1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

Inhibited by the antituberculous drug D-cycloserine (DCS), which is a structural analog of D-alanine.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the ‘Function’ section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

  1. KM=1.1 mM for D-alanine1 Publication
  2. KM=1.2 mM for L-alanine1 Publication
  1. Vmax=0.46 µmol/min/mg enzyme toward D-alanine1 Publication
  2. Vmax=0.51 µmol/min/mg enzyme toward L-alanine1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: D-alanine biosynthesis

This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes D-alanine from L-alanine.UniRule annotation
Proteins known to be involved in this subpathway in this organism are:
  1. Alanine racemase (alr)
This subpathway is part of the pathway D-alanine biosynthesis, which is itself part of Amino-acid biosynthesis.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes D-alanine from L-alanine, the pathway D-alanine biosynthesis and in Amino-acid biosynthesis.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei44Proton acceptor; specific for D-alanineUniRule annotation1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function</a> section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei142SubstrateUniRule annotation1
Active sitei273Proton acceptor; specific for L-alanineUniRule annotation1
Binding sitei321Substrate; via amide nitrogenUniRule annotation1

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionIsomerase
LigandPyridoxal phosphate

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

More...
BioCyci
MTBH37RV:G185E-7700-MONOMER

BRENDA Comprehensive Enzyme Information System

More...
BRENDAi
5.1.1.1 3445

UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways

More...
UniPathwayi
UPA00042;UER00497

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Alanine racemaseUniRule annotation (EC:5.1.1.1UniRule annotation)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:alr
Ordered Locus Names:Rv3423c
ORF Names:MTCY78.06
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiMycobacterium tuberculosis (strain ATCC 25618 / H37Rv)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri83332 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaActinobacteriaCorynebacterialesMycobacteriaceaeMycobacteriumMycobacterium tuberculosis complex
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000001584 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Chromosome

Organism-specific databases

Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv genome database

More...
TubercuListi
Rv3423c

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

Chemistry databases

ChEMBL database of bioactive drug-like small molecules

More...
ChEMBLi
CHEMBL2031

DrugCentral

More...
DrugCentrali
P9WQA9

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00001145391 – 386Alanine racemaseAdd BLAST386

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei44N6-(pyridoxal phosphate)lysine1 Publication1

Proteomic databases

PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life

More...
PaxDbi
P9WQA9

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Homodimer.

1 Publication

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING: functional protein association networks

More...
STRINGi
83332.Rv3423c

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

Secondary structure

1386
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
P9WQA9

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

Protein Data Bank in Europe - Knowledge Base

More...
PDBe-KBi
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the alanine racemase family.UniRule annotation

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

More...
eggNOGi
ENOG4105CJ4 Bacteria
COG0787 LUCA

KEGG Orthology (KO)

More...
KOi
K01775

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

More...
OMAi
WEILCGF

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
2.40.37.10, 1 hit
3.20.20.10, 1 hit

HAMAP database of protein families

More...
HAMAPi
MF_01201 Ala_racemase, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR000821 Ala_racemase
IPR009006 Ala_racemase/Decarboxylase_C
IPR011079 Ala_racemase_C
IPR001608 Ala_racemase_N
IPR020622 Ala_racemase_pyridoxalP-BS
IPR029066 PLP-binding_barrel

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00842 Ala_racemase_C, 1 hit
PF01168 Ala_racemase_N, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR00992 ALARACEMASE

Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database

More...
SMARTi
View protein in SMART
SM01005 Ala_racemase_C, 1 hit

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF50621 SSF50621, 1 hit
SSF51419 SSF51419, 1 hit

TIGRFAMs; a protein family database

More...
TIGRFAMsi
TIGR00492 alr, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00395 ALANINE_RACEMASE, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

P9WQA9-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MAMTPISQTP GLLAEAMVDL GAIEHNVRVL REHAGHAQLM AVVKADGYGH
60 70 80 90 100
GATRVAQTAL GAGAAELGVA TVDEALALRA DGITAPVLAW LHPPGIDFGP
110 120 130 140 150
ALLADVQVAV SSLRQLDELL HAVRRTGRTA TVTVKVDTGL NRNGVGPAQF
160 170 180 190 200
PAMLTALRQA MAEDAVRLRG LMSHMVYADK PDDSINDVQA QRFTAFLAQA
210 220 230 240 250
REQGVRFEVA HLSNSSATMA RPDLTFDLVR PGIAVYGLSP VPALGDMGLV
260 270 280 290 300
PAMTVKCAVA LVKSIRAGEG VSYGHTWIAP RDTNLALLPI GYADGVFRSL
310 320 330 340 350
GGRLEVLING RRCPGVGRIC MDQFMVDLGP GPLDVAEGDE AILFGPGIRG
360 370 380
EPTAQDWADL VGTIHYEVVT SPRGRITRTY REAENR
Length:386
Mass (Da):40,926
Last modified:April 16, 2014 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i806225696ACB0BFE
GO

<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section reports difference(s) between the protein sequence shown in the UniProtKB entry and other available protein sequences derived from the same gene.<p><a href='/help/sequence_caution' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAD51033 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation.Curated
The sequence CCP46245 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Extended N-terminus.Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF172731 Genomic DNA Translation: AAD51033.1 Different initiation.
AL123456 Genomic DNA Translation: CCP46245.1 Different initiation.

Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource

More...
PIRi
D70738

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
NP_217940.1, NC_000962.3

Genome annotation databases

Ensembl bacterial and archaeal genome annotation project

More...
EnsemblBacteriai
CCP46245; CCP46245; Rv3423c

Database of genes from NCBI RefSeq genomes

More...
GeneIDi
887634

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

More...
KEGGi
mtu:Rv3423c

Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC)

More...
PATRICi
fig|83332.12.peg.3820

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF172731 Genomic DNA Translation: AAD51033.1 Different initiation.
AL123456 Genomic DNA Translation: CCP46245.1 Different initiation.
PIRiD70738
RefSeqiNP_217940.1, NC_000962.3

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

More...
PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

More...
RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

More...
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1XFCX-ray1.90A/B3-386[»]
SMRiP9WQA9
ModBaseiSearch...
PDBe-KBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi83332.Rv3423c

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL2031
DrugCentraliP9WQA9

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP9WQA9

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblBacteriaiCCP46245; CCP46245; Rv3423c
GeneIDi887634
KEGGimtu:Rv3423c
PATRICifig|83332.12.peg.3820

Organism-specific databases

TubercuListiRv3423c

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG4105CJ4 Bacteria
COG0787 LUCA
KOiK01775
OMAiWEILCGF

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00042;UER00497
BioCyciMTBH37RV:G185E-7700-MONOMER
BRENDAi5.1.1.1 3445

Miscellaneous databases

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:P9WQA9

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.40.37.10, 1 hit
3.20.20.10, 1 hit
HAMAPiMF_01201 Ala_racemase, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR000821 Ala_racemase
IPR009006 Ala_racemase/Decarboxylase_C
IPR011079 Ala_racemase_C
IPR001608 Ala_racemase_N
IPR020622 Ala_racemase_pyridoxalP-BS
IPR029066 PLP-binding_barrel
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00842 Ala_racemase_C, 1 hit
PF01168 Ala_racemase_N, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00992 ALARACEMASE
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM01005 Ala_racemase_C, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF50621 SSF50621, 1 hit
SSF51419 SSF51419, 1 hit
TIGRFAMsiTIGR00492 alr, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00395 ALANINE_RACEMASE, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiALR_MYCTU
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P9WQA9
Secondary accession number(s): L0TFK3, P0A4X2, Q50705
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 16, 2014
Last sequence update: April 16, 2014
Last modified: October 16, 2019
This is version 37 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains ATCC 25618 / H37Rv and CDC 1551 / Oshkosh
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains ATCC 25618 / H37Rv and CDC 1551 / Oshkosh: entries and gene names
  3. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  4. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
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