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Subcellular locations Results

Subcellular location
Attachment organelle

The attachment organelle is a multifunctional polar structure found in several Mycoplasma species. This large and complex cell extension, whose predicted mass is greater than that of a vertebrate nuclear pore complex, is essential for adherence to host cells, is involved in gliding motility, and is associated with cell division.

Category: Cellular component

Attachment organelle membrane

The membrane surrounding the attachment organelle.

Category: Cellular component

Autophagosome

The autophagosome is a double membrane vesicle involved in the degradation of long-lived proteins, unnecessary or damaged organelles as well as other cellular constituents such as lipids or carbohydrates. Crescent-shape isolation membranes or phagophores can sequester cytoplasm and organelles giving rise to autophagosomes. The outer membrane of the autophagosomes then fuse with vacuoles and/or lysosomes and the inner membrane vesicles (termed autophagic bodies) are released into the vacuole/lysosome lumen. These vesicles are then lysed and the contents are degraded by resident hydrolases.

Category: Cellular component

Autophagosome lumen

The autophagosomal compartment bounded by the autophagosomal membrane.

Category: Cellular component

Autophagosome membrane

The membrane surrounding the autophagosome.

Category: Cellular component

Axon

The axon is the long process of a neuron that conducts nerve impulses, usually away from the cell body to the terminals and varicosities, which are sites of storage and release of neurotransmitter.

Category: Cellular component

Bacterial extracellular vesicle

Small membrane vesicle (< 1 um) that buds off a prokaryotic cell's plasma membrane, able to carry proteins, phospholipids, lipopolysaccharides, nucleic acids, viruses, etc. Bacterial extracellular vesicles are important in intercellular communication and pathogenesis, and can exist within host cells.

Category: Cellular component

Bacterial flagellum

The flagellum of Bacteria is a long hair-like cell surface appendage. The flagellar apparatus consists of the flagellar filament made of polymerized flagellin (the propeller), the hook-like structure near the cell surface (the universal joint) and the basal body (the engine) which is a rod and a system of rings embedded in the cell envelope. The basal body and the hook anchor the whip-like filament to the cell surface. The flagellum is a rotating structure whose switches propels the cell through a liquid medium.

Category: Cellular component

Bacterial flagellum basal body

The basal body of a bacterial flagellum is a rod and a system of rings embedded in the cell envelope. Gram-negative flagella usually have an L ring in the plane of the lipopolysaccharide in the outer membrane, a periplasmic P ring in the plane of the peptidoglycan around the flagellar rod and a MS ring that is located within and above the cytoplasmic membrane. A C ring extends into the cytoplasm. The rod is a major component of the flagellar basal body and it spans the bacterial periplasm. The L and P rings are not found in Gram-positive bacteria.

Category: Cellular component

Bacterial flagellum filament

The bacterial flagellar filament is made of polymerized flagellin.

Category: Cellular component

Bacterial flagellum hook

The hook of a bacterial flagellum connects the basal body and the filament and acts as a universal joint. This flexible hinge relays the energy generated by the motor into torque formation that is transferred onto the rigid filament.

Category: Cellular component

Barrier septum

The barrier septum, is a septum which spans a cell and does not allow exchange of organelles or cytoplasm between compartments.

Category: Cellular component

Basal cell membrane

The basal cell membrane is the fraction of the plasma membrane at the basal side of the cell, which faces the underlying connective tissue.

Category: Cellular component

Basement membrane

The basement membrane is a highly specialized extracellular matrix structure undelying the basal surface of cells exhibiting polarity (epithelial, endothelial and mesothelial cells) and surrounding certain cell types such as muscle, adipose and Schwann cells.

Category: Cellular component

Basolateral cell membrane

The basolateral cell membrane is the fraction of the plasma membrane at the basolateral side of the cell, which faces adjacent cells and the underlying connective tissue.

Category: Cellular component

Bleb

These cellular membrane protrusions are the result of actomyosin contractions of the cortex, which cause either transient detachment of the cell membrane from the actin cortex or a rupture in the actin cortex. Then, cytosol streams out of the cell body and inflates the newly formed bleb. Once expansion slows, an actin cortex is reconstituted. Retraction is powered by myosin motor proteins. Blebbing is a common feature of cell physiology during cell movement, cytokinesis, cell spreading and apoptosis.

Category: Cellular component

Bud

A growing bud is an asexual reproductive structure, as in yeast or a hydra, that consists of an outgrowth capable of developing into a new individual.

Category: Cellular component

Bud membrane

The membrane surrounding a bud.

Category: Cellular component

Bud neck

The bud neck is a constriction between the mother and the daughter cell (bud) in an organism that reproduces by budding. This structure comprises the septin ring, an hourglass-shaped collar around the mother-bud neck, which splits into two rings flanking the division plane at cytokinesis and that acts as a diffusion barrier to maintain polarity factors in the bud and as a scaffold to recruit actomyosin contractile ring components.

Category: Cellular component

Bud tip

The bud tip is the distal tip of the bud opposite to the site of attachment to the mother cell.

Category: Cellular component

Cajal body

The nuclear Cajal bodies (CBs) are small subnuclear membraneless organelles present either free in the nucleoplasm and/or physically associated to specific regions of chromatin. CBs contain newly assembled small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins (snoRNPs) particles, which are involved in pre-mRNA splicing and in ribosomal RNA processing, respectively. Mammalian nucleus in interphase, show 2-6 CBs, as irregular, punctuate structures, which vary in size and shape and which are often juxtaposed to nucleoli. At the electronic-microscope level, they are composed of heterogeneous mixture of electro-dense particles with diameters ranging from 20-25 nm and are called coiled body. Structures similar to CBs have been identified in the amphibian oocyte nucleus (called sphere organelles) and in insect (called endobodies). CBs are motile and dynamic structures. Both their protein and RNA-protein components can cycle continuously between CBs and other nuclear locations depending on the transcriptional state of the cell.

Category: Cellular component

Calyx

The calyx is a large cytoskeletal component of the perinuclear theca of the mammalian sperm head.

Category: Cellular component

Capsule

The capsule is a protective structure surrounding some bacteria or fungi. The bacterial capsule is a layer of material, usually polysaccharide, attached to the cell wall possibly via covalent attachments to either phospholipid or lipid-A molecules. It has several functions: promote bacterial adhesion to surfaces or interaction with other organisms; act as a permeability barrier, as a defense mechanism against phagocytosis and/or as a nutrient reserve. Among pathogens, capsule formation often correlates with pathogenicity. The fungal capsule is an extracellular layer which lies outside the cell wall and it is usually composed of polysaccharides. It protects the cell from different environmental dangers such as phagocytosis, dessication, etc.

Category: Cellular component

Carboxysome

The carboxysome is a small polyhedral inclusion body containing several polypeptides surrounded by a thin protein coat. They are cytoplasmic in cyanobacteria and are also found in the stroma of cyanelles. They contain most to all of the cellular complement of Rubisco. Carboxysomes appear to function as a microcompartment in which Rubisco-mediated CO(2) fixation occurs.

Category: Cellular component

Caveola

The caveola is a small (apparently) uncoated pit mostly found in the cell membrane of many highly differentiated mammalian cells, such as adipocytes, endothelial cells and muscle cells. These flask-shaped invaginations are defined by the presence of caveolins and contains a subset of lipid-raft components, including cholesterol and sphingolipids. Caveolae each comprise a caveolar bulb with a diameter of 60-80 nm, connected to an opening of fairly constant diameter. Caveolae might exists as single pits or can form a cluster of caveolae with non-caveolar membrane between the pits. In many tissues, and particularly in adipocytes, multiple caveolae are arranged around a central vacuolar domain. In developing muscle fibres, multiple caveolae are connected by a single neck to the cell membrane, producing large chains of interconnected caveolae. Another structural feature of caveolae in certain endothelia is the presence of a stomatal diaphragm, which consists of a central density and radial spikes, in the neck of the caveolae. Mature caveolae might be assembled in the Golgi apparatus. Caveolae can flatten out into the cell membrane, thereby loosing their caveolar identity.

Category: Cellular component

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